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Clean and efficient FUEL CELL Technology to energize the world.
Fuel cells are poised to substantially improve the way electricity is generated and distributed. Fuel cells produce little or no emissions and are more efficient than combustion generators. They have virtually no moving parts, are highly dependable and produce high-quality power that is ideally suited to run sensitive equipment. Fuel cells are already generating power for hospitals, hotels, airports, universities and military installations, and can be easily adapted to power homes, cars and anything else that uses electricity. Residential fuel cells will revolutionize electric power generation and reshape the electric utility industry.
Fuel cells are like chemical engines but with no moving parts. A fuel cell operates very much like a rechargeable battery. An electrochemical process converts chemical energy into electricity, as long as fuel is provided. The chemical energy normally comes from hydrogen contained in various types of fuel. A fuel cell consists of two electrodes sandwiched around an electrolyte. As hydrogen circulates in the anode (positive electrode) of the cell, oxygen or air is passed into the cathode (negative electrode). A catalyst causes the hydrogen to split into protons and electrons. The flow of electrons through the electrolyte creates a current, which is the source of electricity generated by the cell. At the cathode, the electrons, protons and oxygen recombine producing water and heat. A fuel cell can utilize the hydrogen from any hydrocarbon fuel such as methanol, ethanol, natural gas, coal derived gas, landfill gas and even gasoline. Since fuel cells rely on chemistry and not combustion, operation is virtually pollution-free.
Today, fuel cells are providing power to hundreds of buildings and homes around the world. A residential fuel cell, typically about the size of a dishwasher, would be capable of supplying the energy demands of a 275-375-m2 house, without connection to a utility’s electrical distribution system. Once in mass production, the expected cost of such a fuel cell would be about $3,000 to $5,000.
Current fuel cell development efforts are focused on five technologies: Proton Exchange Membrane, Phosphoric Acid, Molten Carbonate, Solid Oxide, and Alkaline. There is no single “winner” that will eclipse other types of fuel cells. That’s because the market for fuel cells is very diverse, ranging from large utility power plants to automobiles. Each market segment can be met with a different mix of fuel cell technologies.
The list of possible benefits derived from fuel cells is endless and can be grouped into three categories: Environmental, Utility System, and Owners and Customers. Most importantly fuel cells are very cost-effective, and can dramatically reduce air pollution, decrease oil imports, reduce the trade deficit, slow environmental degradation and eliminate the need for an electric utility’s transmission and distribution wires/lines.
Expect your local electric utility to sell or lease fuel cell systems in the very near future. So get ready for a fuel cell “energy machine” in your own home. In addition, major car manufacturers are developing fuel cell vehicles. Several prototypes have been demonstrated and projections are that by 2005 fuel cell powered vehicles will be on the market. The fuel cells technology being developed for automotive applications offer high-performance, clean emission, fast refueling and increased distance between refueling. The efficiency of automotive fuel cells is up to three times the efficiency of an internal combustion engine.
Fuel cells are the answer to the energy needs of the future. Successes in technological developments have created a confidence and hope for a future in which fuel cells could be used to produce thousands of megawatts in much the same way that a power plant produces electricity today. Clean and efficient fuel cell technology is ready to energize the world. Finally, using fuel cells to produce electricity could virtually eliminate all greenhouse gas emissions in the twenty-first century.
“The views and opinions expressed herein are those solely of the writer and are not intended to represent those of the United States Department of Agriculture.”
For information on purchasing reprints of this article, contact sales. Copyright 2013 CyberTech, Inc.
Very Well stated and to the point. Fuel cells are part of the solution America has before it to alleviate the stranglehold foreign oil has on our society. Statistical data from governmental agencies, independent research firms, and corporations continue to support the advantages associated with the implementation of fuel cells and other alternative energy technology. The economical, political, and environmental benefits far outweigh the disadvantages of a continued dependence on fossil fuel. Competitively the wind industry is already cost effective even without the subsidies that the fossil fuel industry enjoys. Many wind projects now report 3 to 4 cents per kilowatt as their target. As for the efficiency associated with fuel cell technology, fuel cell efficiencies of up to 85% are obtainable. Fossil fuel, on the other hand, has an obtainable efficiency rating in the low 30% range.
This is a time for bold innovative alternatives to rid U.S. dependence on fossil fuel. This is not a dream as some have claimed. This technology is available today and in some cases, as with Fuel Cell Energy’s DFC product line, no new infrastructure is needed to utilize the technology. H2 internally is produced by utilization of Natural Gas.
President Bush and many Senate and Congressional leaders are asking for the H2 economy to become a reality. Moreover, legislators in many states are elevating the alternative energy issue to assist in positioning their states in a more completive position for future energy development and production of products and services. Oil companies are seizing this opportunity to invest in many alternative energy companies also. The public is becoming more aware of escalating dependence on fossil fuel due in part to the situations associated with the war in Iraq. Therefore, Americans are requesting the accelerated use of alternative energy.
The fossil fuel industry will continue to play an important part of U.S. energy needs; however, alternatives should and will continue to alleviate the pressure on U.S. dependence on foreign sources of energy if America works together as a unified republic.
Mike Ellis Manteo, NC
Randy Fields 4.2.03
Everyone keeps implying that fuel cells are the answer to all our energy problems. What apparently you all forget is that fuel cells use fuel also. Just like power plants and internal combution engines, fuel cells use fossil fuels, natural gas, gasolene, coal. The clean burning hydrogen has to come from somewhere and the production of hydrogen creates pollution. It will not stop our dependence on foreign oil.
Fuel cells will have a place in the energy future, but please don't promote them as the energy problem solution miracle. Fuel cells have been in existence for many years and have not been the cure all you seem to think they are.
Randy Fields, IL
Troy Helming 4.2.03
Darshan - thanks so much for your truly excellent article. Many of the comments and responses were obviously from vested interests who are scared about the future of their jobs and/or industry. We have run the pro formas on producing hydrogen from our first wind farm in Kansas (45 MW, located outside of a city municipal utility), and expect to begin producing H2 in late 2004, at a cost of $.50-$.75 per 100 scf. The cost can go lower than that assuming we get enough contracts for the H2, which can be shipped via some of the many natural gas pipelines in Kansas and other means we have already negotiated. Do you know any resources to help us get H2 contracts so we can expand the H2 production of our 1st wind farm next year and bring the H2 Economy to reality even faster? Troy Helming 913-888-WIND
Ben Spock 4.3.03
Fuel cells require a great more research and development before being adopted. There are a myriad of technical problems with all types: PEM fuel cells need high purity hydrogen and there a significant issues with hydrogen generation and storage in the transportation sector; phos-acid FCs are too expensive and have low power densities. molten carbonate are high corrosive; and solid oxide have many problems ahead, including durability and cost. UTC is discontinuing the only commercial fuel cell (PA), which it is replacing with a new PEM still under development. At $4500/kW, fuel cell technology is hardly ready to compete in the market. The "hydrogen economy" is still many decades away. Since hydrogen must be reformed, other forms of energy must be used. NREL calculates that if all the wind turbines were to be put to use to produce hydrogen, it would amount to 2% of the the transportation needs! New pipelines must be built. The capital required is astounding. The Bush administration has picked this technology to act as a smoke screen for their reluctance to push energy efficiency and automotive/truck fuel economy standards. They know full well it is well off in the future. The $1.2billion they hope to get Congress' approval for 5 years of funding support is a mere fraction of what the auto industry spends on new model develpment and manufacturing.
Finally, what is the point of the article? It seems like banal cheerleading. Why not identify some real issues? How about some peer review?
Phil Williams 4.4.03
Thank you for the article on fuel cells - which is as correct as anyone can write in one page.
It's interesting that stationary fuel cells are almost always fueled by natural gas. The user becomes a customer of a gas utility instead of an electricity utility - so the price of their power depends on the price of natural gas.
There are a few thousand stationary fuel cells that have accumulated several million hours of operation. They include a few hundred installations of 200 kilowatt fuel cells. Some of their advantages include two to three times the efficiency of internal combustion engines, very low emission and almost silent operation.
Another major application for fuel cells is in hybrid electric cars. As the manufacturers are saying, their experience with 42-volt electrical systems, battery electric vehicles, gasoline engine hybrid electrics, and diesel engine hybrid electrics, are all building on their experience and ability to build highly efficient cars that are incorporating more and more electrical functions.
Hybrid electric cars - including fuel cell hybrid electrics - will be pluggable. During a trip to the store, or when stuck in a traffic jam, hybrid electric cars run on battery power only. Then if you park where it's convenient to plug into an electrical socket, then you'll top up your battery from the wall. On longer trips, or if it's not convenient to plug into an electrical socket, then the on-board generator will supply all the power you need. Depending on the type of on-board generator, the fuel is gasoline, diesel, hydrogen or whatever is applicable.
The reason to top up your battery from the wall - instead of from the on-board generator, is that the power from any type of on-board generator can be 10 times more expensive than power from the wall.
There are demonstration numbers of fuel cell hybrid-electric cars, trucks and buses on the roads now. In 2010 they will be 0.5% of new cars. In 2020 they will be 10% of new cars. In 2050 they will be 50% of new cars.
World production of hydrogen is currently 50 million tons per year, with a large part of that being used by oil refineries to produce cleaner hydrocarbon fuels. A fuel cell car may use about 200 kg of hydrogen in a year (to drive 16,000 km).
The most efficient production of hydrogen is by a thermochemical process powered by nuclear power stations.
There is also the FutureGen clean coal power stations that produce hydrogen and electricity (and virtually all the carbon dioxide is sequestered).
By all means, use renewable energy as well, but renewables are forecast to provide only 15% of the world's energy requirement.
The major energy sources are nuclear, coal, oil, gas and hydro.
The hydrogen economy is the nuclear economy.
Lloyd Weaver 4.7.03
Ben Spock’s comments above are right on. Many problems must be solved before fuel cells will work cost effectively, including contamination, cost-effective hydrogen supply etc.
It's unfortunate that fuel cells and the so-called hydrogen economy have been so politicized. As Mr. Spock points out, this appears to be expressly done to divert attention from what really needs to be done, increase fuel efficiency of vehicles and increased energy efficiency in general.
But as I have said many times on these pages, the U.S. has 3 years of proven oil reserves if it used only its own and an 8 year gas supply. We are a lot closer to Japan in domestic energy supply problems than most people think. That’s why we import 70% of our oil now and are headed to be the largest importer of LNG in the world (currently a Japanese title).
But fortunately, we see the auto industry pushing hard to develop practical hybrid drives. In a couple of years, I expect to see battery packs as standard with these vehicles so that plugging in at night can reduce oil consumption. According to an EPRI study, 60% “well to wheels” oil and 37% smog pollutant reduction is possible if a hybrid drive has a 20-mile battery, and that doesn’t include any improved streamlining or special low-rolling resistance tires.
I believe the U.S. auto industry knows the score. If they don’t produce fuel-efficient hybrid vehicles, they will see their customers go to the folks who do.
Also, forget the hydrogen economy for now. Research $ should be going to the far more practical technological combinations that are possible, and that can really solve our energy problems, like hybrid drives and cost-effective battery packs, for example
Phil Williams 4.7.03
We have the technology for hybrid-electric cars with a 20-mile battery - that have the benefits of high fuel efficiency and low emissions.
The commercialization of hybrid-electric cars by Toyota and Honda is now ramping up through 100,000 cars a year - with the numbers climbing through half a million hybrid-electric cars being built in 2005.
Hybrid-electric cars are past the stage of needing research dollars. The introduction of most automotive innovations is a twenty-year process. Examples include 4-valves per cylinder, disk brakes, 4-speed automatic transmissions and many other automotive technologies. The implementation of hybrid-electric technology has already begun.
The steps now being taken are to establish the hydrogen fuel infrastructure - for hydrogen vehicles with hybrid-electric drive. This is the technology that will be implemented in large numbers from 2020.
Nick Cobb, VP 4.8.03
It's my understanding that fuel cells have a longevity proble. In a car, won't these cells have to be replaced every 10,000 miles? At what cost?
We're probably on the right track--what about anti-gravity?
Mark R. Johnson 4.8.03
The article suggests that fuel cells are nearly magical in their ability to solve the world's energy problems. Let me make some observations about problems to overcome:
1) For residential houses, if the house is off-grid it must own a generator (fuel cell) capable of supplying its PEAK ELECTRIC LOAD. Whereas if it is on-grid the utility is obligated to supply a much lower amount of generation -- based on my work with an electric utility, a factor of threefold is realistic.
2) GE used to promote fuel cells for residential houses and had a very informative cost calculator. It estimated an operating around 6 cents/kwh for my region, at a time when utility power costs around 9 cents/kwh. However wholesale power costs at the time could be well under 6 cents/kwh. I attempted to estimate the realistic budget needed to purchase the fuel cell unit, provide maintenance and amortize its cost over 20 years. The conclusion was the GE fuel cell unit would cost at least twice the cost of utility power at retail prices. The product could be attractive to people who could not connect to the grid, it could not possibly be economical compared to utility electric power from the grid.
3) All machines break once in awhile and you need a plan for backup. Grid connection is the obvious cheap alternative for backup power even if you choose to self generate.
4) My conclusion is that if fuel cells are such a worthy technology, the major benefits can be obtained by some form of collective ownership and use, which is very likely to be the electric utility. However other technologies will not stand still while fuel cells are being perfected, and fuel cells must be compared with advanced gas turbines and other promising generating technologies.
Hope this helps understand the problems some. -- M. Johnson
Robert Wanex 4.8.03
I originally thought that having two energy men for our president and vice president would help us to produce a realistic energy policy. I was naive in not realizing they are oil men, not energy men. Our lack of a national self sufficient energy policy is the leading cause of many US domestic and foreign problems. Our biggest problem to overcoming our energy problems is politics, not technology.
Having worked directly with fuel cells some 28 years ago, I am still of the opinion that it takes either a tank full of hydrogen or a natural gas supply line to fuel a fuel cell. I recall a tank of pure hydrogen is fairly explosive.
A natural gas supply is dependent on natural gas pricing, transmission, and distribution. Natural gas prices have risen over the past few years, primarily due to the use of natural gas as the fuel of choice for new power plant construction. Depleting gas supplies at the current rate will buy us a few years before a shortages develop.
Alternative energy sources such as solar and wind are highly desirable, but limited as to the overall percentage of power they can produce. Hybrid, electric, and fuel cell transportation vehicles would all reduce our dependance on foreign oil.
It seems to me the only viable energy source is nuclear. The nuclear industry has been stagnant in the US for the last 25 years. Perhaps it is time to invest in research in this area to produce a power source that does not have the long term waste handling problems that our current reactors exhibit. I for one would like to see the US totally independent of foreign energy.
Bill Mueller 4.8.03
Fuel cells require a great deal more economic sense before they can be a significant part of any energy solution.
Fuel Cells are indeed very impressive, clean, efficient, highly technical. But disconnected from the grid? Are they reliable enough to compare to utility power? Less than 40 minutes per year, including scheduled maintenance and unscheduled outages?
If a fuel cell is installed so the grid can provide peak power and backup power, the interconnection costs will not be minor compared to a $5000 installation. And installing the fuel cell to also operate as an emergency generator, if the utility power goes out would out of the range of $3000 to $5000 per installation.
Keep in mind that a fuel cell does not have enough waste heat to heat a house; a home heating system will still be needed. A fuel cell that is 85% efficient has insufficient waste heat to heat a house without being electrically oversized. So the savings of a home heating bill cannot be attributed to the decision to install a fuel cell. The recovered heat could not justify the heat recovery equipment which would be no more than a thousand dollars.
The builder of a new house faces the choice between installing a service drop with its electric bills or installing a fuel cell and its gas bills. (We shall ascribe the cost of the gas service to the cost of the house’s heating system.).
The fuel cell would be operating at a 5% to 10% load factor, which is a home’s usual electric load factor. A 10,000 kWh/year house will require a 10 to 15 kW fuel cell without storage and without grid connection. 10kW at $3000 would require fuel cells to be installed at $300/kW, comparable to a current diesel engine. Unlikely. Fuel Cells are expensive, even when the price comes down.
If the fuel cell is interconnected with the grid, then it could be sized at 2kW and feed excess power at night to the grid (at low prices) and accept peak power from the grid during the day (at higher prices). The electric bill including interconnection equipment and net metering charges would add probably $250 per year to the installation
An Electric bill for a 10,000 kWh/year house is perhaps $1000. More then half of the residences in this country use fewer than 6,000 kWhs/year. A $5000 fuel cell installation (equipment, labor, site preparation and electrical equipment) will finance at perhaps $1200 per year. There is a maintenance visit each year at $120, and there is the gas to buy, perhaps another $200. This assumes that there is no interconnection and backup power provided by the grid.
So which part of these calculations is going to change enough to be persuasive to 10% or 20% of all residences? to be more than a niche application? If the $5000 installation were half as large, the choice would be a horse race. If it were a third as large fuel cell would be viable.
Brandon Ebeling 4.8.03
You FC doomsayers need to get real and start thinking outside of your box (really).
Have any of you heard of Millennium Cell (MCEL). Their fuel cell is going into both Ford and Daimler/Chrysler and another automakers vehicle. NYC is testing one out. And I understand that there are a lot of busses are being powered by FC’s, both in the US, Europe and elsewhere.
This technology solves a number of problems. Reforming H2 is one of them, since there system releases the H2 on demand—no pressurized tank is needed. The fuel components include borax and water (we have plenty of both) and the by-product can be recycled to use again. Existing gas stations could provide both with less need for regulation and who’s going to care if a water tank leaks fresh water. The range of the vehicle is comparable to existing IC fueled vehicles. I also understand that Millennium Cells FC’s don’t require as much maintenance because they don’t use hydrocarbons.
So we have an abundant supply of raw materials here in the good old USA and we’ve got the distribution infrastructure in place.
We're going to run out of gas sooner than later--better to fix the problem sooner. What we need to get this off the ground is a massive project (the equivalent of a depression era WPA, WWII Manhattan Project or the national Interstate roads system project initiated by Eisenhower) and utility executives that think outside the box. Partner with the FC industry, ramp up manufacturing and distribution and then lease a fuel cell to every home owner for current rates (maybe less). We don’t need the oil guys (except for some of their money if they don’t want to become the next buggy whip).
This isn’t brain surgery anymore. The problems are political not technological. Money rules.
And back to MCEL, you might even want get a few shares while the price is down with the rest of the market, I did (wish I could afford more).
Samuel Brown 4.8.03
Just a few comments. One, eventually fuel cells and/or PV's will negate the need for AC/DC conversion (converters and inverters are expensive components). Houses will use DC only. Second, regarding future fuel supplies, one possibility exists via thermal depolyerization (see Discover magazine May 2003). Finally, the usual naysayers to fuel cells seem to be folks who are pro-PVs and wind power advocates but don't state so in their comments. Luddites always see change as anathema and a threat to their view especially if it doesn't align with their view of merging with nature.
Reji Kumar 4.9.03
Dear Darshan, Good to see your article on Fuel Cell again with new insights! Congrats. Love Rejikumar
Nicolas DELATTRE 4.9.03
Dreaming is cheap. But unfortunatelly the economics are still very much against fuel cells in general. Who will pay 1000 USD per kVA installed when you can get a reliable KVA for 250/350 USD from a traditional 4 strokes diesel or gas genset.
I have no doubt fuel cells will play a role in distributed power generation, but not before another 10 years at the very best, assuming some key breakthrough are achieved in the automative industy. (Only large volume can pull prices down)
As said by many above, fuel cells are running on hydrogen or eventually natural gas for the largest ones. Hydrogen is not available on this planet as a commodity. It shall be "manufactured". When this is taken into account from an entropic stand point, the overall efficiency is much lower than anticipated primarily.
paneendra kumar bl 4.9.03
Fuel cells have one major advantage of making a country self-reliant. Developing countries like India spend huge amount in terms of foreign exchange to purchase oil. This greatly affects their inflation rate. There is lot of uncertainty involved in global fuel price due to various political reasons. Such fluctuations affect the planned expenditure of developing countries. Large-scale employment of fuel cells would insulate country from such fluctuations.
Phil Williams 4.10.03
To: paneendra kumar bl
India's electricity production is 75% coal, 18% hydro, 4% nuclear, 3% other.
Nuclear is 2,500 MW from 14 power stations. 8 new civil power reactors are being built to increase nuclear power output to 10,000 MW. Output in 2020 is planned to be 20,000 MW.
India's oil imports are for transportation fuel. 97% of transportation is powered by oil products.
When you say that "Large-scale employment of fuel cells would insulate [India] from such [oil price] fluctuations", what energy source do you think can replace oil? Are you referring to fuel cells for vehciles, or stationary fuel cells?
The fuel for vehicles is most likely to be hydrogen (that, as everyone says, has to be produced).
The fuel for stationary fuel cells is in most cases natural gas. (The off-shore Bombay gas field could supply the fuel).
Brandon Ebeling Your post was mostly about Millennium Cell, Inc (MCEL). They don't actually build or develop fuel cells. The product they are working to commercialize a tank of sodium borohydride that is a fuel tank that can be used on a vehicle. Hydrogen is chemically locked into sodium borohydride. The chemical is fed past a catalyst to unlock the hydrogen. The vehicle is fitted with a twin tank setup. One tank for the chemical before the hydrogen is extracted, and another tank to hold the spent chemical. At the proposed filling station, a double function hose is planned to fill the first tank with fresh chemical at the same time as the second tank is being emptied. The spent chemical is then reprocessed somewhere to turn it back into sodium borohydride. The energy required is the energy value that was removed plus 40%. The concept may have niche applications.
Compressed hydrogen fuel systems are more common in current hydrogen vehicles. The companies involved include the industrial gas companies such as Air Products, and Praxair, and system and hardware companies like Dynatek and Quantum Technologies.
Dursun Sakarya 11.25.03
"Lloyd Weaver 4.7.03 But fortunately, we see the auto industry pushing hard to develop practical hybrid drives." I agree with you, however I have some experience with what you call "the auto industry". The auto industry is really three group, Detroit, the Japanese and the Koreans. Within Detroit. GM has done everything to thwart the hybrid. The "Big Three" received about $900 million of taxpayer money for PNVG, Partnership of New Generation Vehicles. Started 1994, to develop a 80 mpg car. The power source was for them to choose. By the late 90s the hybrid was the choice. The program meet the 2000 milestone of 70 mpg. In 2001 Bush killed the program, replaced it with Freedom Car & Freedom Fuel. The rest is a sad history. Bush's chief of staff is Andy Card a GM exec. and before that the head of the auto industry lobbying group.
Pat Wiley 9.22.04
A lot of good input from everyone. This is long but full of valuable info, please read the entire message. I noticed as I read some of the comments that there are a significant number of people that do not fully understand the availability of the different fuels that can be used in Fuel Cell's; specifically the Hydrogen Fuel Cell, manufactured by Ballard, currently being tested in cars and trucks by Ford and Diamler-Chrysler. In this letter, I reference several different UNLIMITED supply options. First, to validate the info, you will need a little information. There is a Limited Liability partnership between Changing World Tech and Conagra Foods called RES Renewable Environmental Sources. You can read all about this company by going to this site www.changingworldtech.com. Anyway, RES, through a process of cooking, temperatures, and pressures makes OIL. Yes, it can be refined into gasoline, heating oil, diesel fuel, and many other petroleum products. Currently, RES, in Carthage, Missouri, can produce around 500 barrels of oil per day. Hardly enough to command a market share, I agree. BUT, this company utilizes our trash, meat processing left overs, hog-farm drainage--anything carbon based--to produce this Black Gold. RES is just now perfecting the process and production methodologies to go "Big-Time". They are breaking ground on the first major production plant that will produce roughly 15-20 thousand barrels per day in Colorado. A side note to this is that the only by-product made by RES that cannot be marketed is distilled H2O. We are seeing the realization, in our lifetime, production of mother natures own crude oil and one of the many usable by-products is Hydrogen. Currently, having spoken at length with the marketing department, the research and development price is around 40+ cents per gallon to produce the oil. The intent is to go public when they can get the cost to around 25 cents per gallon. As I mentioned, one of the many very profitable by-products is Hydrogen along with Methane, Octane, ethanol, and a plethera of other natural fuels in unlimited supply. When the technology becomes available to private manufacturers, this country will see supply glut and lower prices for our oil based energy resources. Hydrogen, and the H-cell motor will likely become an environmentally friendly option. In the big picture, the only thing holding industry leaders from switching or offering Hydrogen power, on a larger scale, is an infrastructure to deliver economically priced Hydrogen to the public. When the options become available for "Joe Public" to go to the corner and get Hydrogen for his/her car, we will see H-cars that utilize a 42 volt battery system as the adjunct power source. The question now would seem, is Hydrogen Technology going to happen, given that we have the technology to make our own oil? World economics would change dramatically if the USA was to become an Oil Exporter. Only time will tell, but I would not sell your gasoloine car just yet. We will see the answer in our lifetimes. The only reason this country will replace the Internal Combustion engine, and all the technology that goes with it, is if mandated by higher authority. However, the possibility of Hydrogen cells replacing nearly ever form of electricity production fuel is tremendous. Wind power also has a tremendous future for home power needs. I can easily imagine, your local power supplier switching to Hydrogen because, in bulk, Hydrogen is very cheap. I can also envision individual ownership of small $3,000-$5,000 home power systems. Heating with electric heat pumps would then be the affordable alternative to fuel systems. Then, instead of having an electric co-op, you would simply go to, or simply have delivered from your fuel supplier, Hydrogen to your homes' Hydrogen storage tank. Through RES, a huge number of environmental problems, trash, hog-farm run-off, meat processing plant left-overs, and many other environmental issues are going to be turned into oil. The decisive denominator will be the bottom line. Which supply source is more profitable to industry leaders?? I do not work for nor am I affiliated with RES or CWT, but I am convinced that the technology they currently utilize will be available very soon. I also suspect that our reliance on gasoline energy will slowly move to cleaner burning fuels and lower emission levels in the near future. For aotomobile manufacturers, the P/E ratio will determine the outcome of this technology. The company to watch for the latest Hydrogen Fuel Cell is Ballard Ind (BLDP). They were recently involved in a huge stock trade deal with Ford and Diamler-Chrysler. We will see, as soon as 2005, cars that use Ballard's fuel cell. Currently, UPS is testing 3 truck delivery vehicles in California and China has a few as well. For the investors in the reading crowd, I would be looking into manufacturers of home power producers or in general, companies that
Larry Page 5.29.12
There are many car manufacturers that are making new automotive parts for their cars and I think these new fuel cells will be a great help to make the cars more efficient. Many are wondering if these fuel cells will be the replacement for the combustion engines for the future.