The direct sale of energy produced to the utility, without public bidding, and no other kind of barrier, by a value freely negotiated between the parties and arbitrated by the Regulatory Agencies would be a welcome development.
Distributed Generations have random character or intermittent power export, not always given the need for their presence in the energy system, which requires the preparation of the network by the Utility, for the care of all loads connected to it, without consideration of generation. Another trend, and on the Mini and Micro Generation is the interactivity with the Smart Grid concept, it allows network managers to provide for Load Control of the connected clients as well as of its generating units, thus obtaining the best use of the Grid in all senses.
The definition of Smart Grid policies will therefore be closely associated with the regulation of Mini and Micro Generation. The Distributed Generation, Mini and Micro Generation, is more circumscribed to sources of Solar Photovoltaic, Wind and Solid Waste and, of course, the Biogas. The other sources, mainly small hydro and biomass generation already have a size a little higher and higher power capacity requiring technical support. Considering these aspects, it is necessary to join the existing benefits to alternative sources, particularly in reference to Photo Voltaic, which has cost more than the average generation from other sources. Solid waste plants are still in experimental stage and require further adjustments to public policies and their effective development.
That is why the creation of the institute of "Net Metering" which is nothing more than an energy bill with criteria for compensation network between the injection and consumption on the consumer unit without payment of their monetary values.
In a contract of "Purchase and Sale" of energy supply rules translate into very heavy obligations for Mini and Micro Generation, which generally do not have the intermittency and reliability technique that currently have other sources, including alternatives more size.
Even with regard to the Mini and Micro Generation, "Free Customer" care and even special exercise would require the addition of various sources of generation through a Condominium and/or Cooperatives.
For energy producers sized slightly larger and not confused with Mini and Micro Generation, commercial and regulatory rules are a little more crystallized, but may not produce the desired effects. Thus, few small generators above 1 MW and up to 5 MW, joined the calls made public, given that this limitation would undermine the viability of their business. For small generators above 1 MW and up to 5 MW, the road is still long because only the Distributed Generation will not be able to withdraw from their lethargy.
It is not possible at present, the specific measurement of the size and momentum to the market for Mini and Micro Generation, because it is very early.
The interest will depend on the form and content produced for these sources and encouraging the Government and Utilities to be directed to the Mini and Micro Generation and have undeniable value for the reduction of peak demand, technical losses, to change the behavior of consumer and their sustainability.
- How to make the integration of Distributed Generation in Large Grid, Time and Space become the two main factors in the connection and disconnection of this new concept.
The combination with Energy Storage at a given point in the Grid can give us the confidence to deal with this new topology distribution.
It is still common to hear comments about the instability that can be added to the Grid with this new topology Distributed Generation, but the Energy Storage can provide the necessary reliability. In many countries, there are isolated populations - as islands - that might benefit from this concept, Distributed Generation along with Energy Storage.
New economic activities will be developed in these regions, with the guarantee of continuous supply of energy.
- The Traditional Power Grids can is coming to an end, and "Large Power Plants" are not the only source of electricity, and sell more power is not necessarily the main objective of energy suppliers. The new objective is the management of "Supply and Demand" along with the opportunity strategically and modeling of new businesses.
Especially in the case of Micro Generation, the tendency is that they remain disconnected from the "Large Grid", its development and survival is in its independence. Faced with such diversity and versatility, it is virtually impossible to map any Topology Distribution under the Micro Generation typical in terms of energy sources or settings, each one tend to have a different topology, especially remote systems. Must be created incentives for energy sources that fueled Distributed Generation will be renewable resources, otherwise, due to its independence, Micro Generation could create a black market in energy, and worse still, their power sources will not necessarily clean.
- Improved grid reliability;
- Green alignment;
- Improved energy use and fuel costs;
- Improved operating efficiency;
- Market participation;
- New revenue sources.
- Slow adoption;
- ack of control systems;
- No history of aggregation success;
- Lack of incentives;
- Few investors;
- Regulatory hurdles;
- Lack of education.