One of these rules is to create a "Set of Systems" that enables the consumer to install small generations in its consumer unit and exchange energy with the local Utility. This "Set of System", allowed the Distributed Generation installed in a residence, for example, will produce energy and that is not consumed will be injected into the Grid, which will use the credit to the consumer. Credits may be used in a given period of time -- "This Time" may be agreed between the Utility and Consumer or by Regulatory Agency -- and the information will be on monthly energy bill of the consumer, so it knows the balance of power and have control over your account. Public Agencies, Schools and Companies with subsidiaries that choose to participate in the compensation system may also use the surplus produced in one of their facilities to reduce the bill to another unit.
The consumer will be responsible initially for the costs of adjusting the "Metering System", after this, the Utility will be responsible for maintenance, including the cost of eventual replacement.
The Utilities do not yet have all the information that can promote this type of generation, and only in some cases has only "Technical Notes" for the connection of generation and the different connection types. It seems to me that the Utilities and Regulatory Agencies are waiting to see who makes the first move, or then the market may indicate the best way.
Protection systems of distribution networks, in most cases, are not prepared for circulation bidirectional power flow, and they have limited capacity and nominal rupture of protective equipment and handling. Thus, the Utilities warn of possible improper operations, overload and lack information of electrical quantities.
The technical criteria for interconnection of small generating plants to the grid, with the aim of reducing costs to generating agents and ensure the technical reliability of these systems to Utilities remains to be defined. Difficulties may exist with the Utilities fearing interference patterns and particularities of their respective systems.
These criteria, for the reasons mentioned here, should be discussed with the Utilities to reach a common sense that establish the basic protections, as well as the measurement system and participation in investments. Currently, the possible difficulties for the installation of Distributed Generation are the adequacy of the protection system input and metering of consumer, in view of the concern that this generation does not contribute to short circuit currents and voltage for the network at the time of failure or shutdown.
But there are important benefits in terms of Distributed Generation are that it encourages a greater awareness and knowledge of the use of electricity.
Since users are likely more aware of the capacity limitations of its source of power they tend to modify their behavior and reduce their electricity consumption to fit within their local energy source available. This results in energy consumption more sustainable and economically beneficial.
- How to make the integration of Distributed Generation in Large Grid, Time and Space become the two main factors in the connection and disconnection of this new concept.
The combination with Energy Storage at a given point in the Grid can give us the confidence to deal with this new topology distribution.
It is still common to hear comments about the instability that can be added to the Grid with this new topology Distributed Generation, but the Energy Storage can provide the necessary reliability. In many countries, there are isolated populations -- as islands -- that might benefit from this concept, Distributed Generation along with Energy Storage.
New economic activities will be developed in these regions, with the guarantee of continuous supply of energy.
- The Traditional Power Grids can is coming to an end, and "Large Power Plants" are not the only source of electricity, and sell more power is not necessarily the main objective of energy suppliers. The new objective is the management of "Supply and Demand" along with the opportunity strategically and modeling of new businesses.
Especially in the case of Micro Generation, the tendency is that they remain disconnected from the "Large Grid", its development and survival is in its independence. Faced with such diversity and versatility, it is virtually impossible to map any Topology Distribution under the Micro Generation typical in terms of energy sources or settings, each one tend to have a different topology, especially remote systems. Must be created incentives for energy sources that fueled Distributed Generation will be renewable resources, otherwise, due to its independence, Micro Generation could create a black market in energy, and worse still, their power sources will not necessarily clean.
- Improved grid reliability;
- Green alignment;
- Improved energy use and fuel costs;
- Improved operating efficiency;
- Market participation;
- New revenue sources.
- Slow adoption;
- Lack of control systems;
- No history of aggregation success;
- Lack of incentives;
- Few investors;
- Regulatory hurdles;
- Lack of education.