This webcast features perspectives from operational technology (OT), information technology (IT) as well as the general industry outlook, to provide attendees insight into the challenges utilities are facing today as well as a holistic view into smart grid strategies to more...
Grid threats increase daily - from foreign foes, terrorists, criminals and hackers. Utilities are tasked with guarding against a rising tide of potentially disruptive intrusions into their power grid and electronic networks. What will it take to keep the power more...
This webcast will feature Patricia Armbruster, Principal Process Management Facilitator in Distribution Operations at DTE Energy, who will share her experience and insights into improving outage response with smart grid technology. more...
Energizing Utility IT Resource Capacity Management. Your Service Delivery Assurance! Let Your ROI Soar as You Optimize Your Virtualized and Cloud Environments Through a Proven Business and Service Aligned Process. more...
As a preview for Utility Analytics Week's data scientist panel session, H. Christine Richards will speak with one of the panel participants to unlock the secrets of the mysterious data scientist and the role they play in utility analytics. more...
Monday Jun 24, 2013
- Tuesday Jun 25, 2013 -
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - USA
Data Informed´s Marketing Analytics and Customer Engagement provides marketing, sales, and customer support managers with the information they need to create an effective data-driven customer strategy. more...
Managing the Migration to IP/Ethernet to Facilitate the Smart Grid 2-5 July 2013 – Le Plaza Brussels, Belgium 2-Day Conference: Wednesday 3rd & Thursday 4th July 2013 Pre-Conference Fundamentals of IP/Ethernet Workshop: Tuesday 2nd July 2013 Post-Conference Security Seminar: Friday more...
Tuesday Jul 9, 2013
- Thursday Jul 11, 2013 -
Washington, District of Columbia - USA
The National Town Meeting on Demand Response and Smart Grid™ is the premier event in the US focused on the business and policy aspects of demand response and its enabling technologies and applications. It is unique in that it devotes more...
Tuesday Jul 16, 2013
- Thursday Jul 18, 2013 -
Atlanta, Illinois - United States
Business Continuity & Organizational Resilience for Utilities Embarking on a Holistic Approach to Business Resiliency and Disaster Recovery Through Utmost Contingency Planning and Execution 17-18 Jul 2013 Atlanta, GA - Venue to be Confirmed, United States of America more...
We know you have something to say!
There is an immediate need for articles on
the hot topics in the Power Industry!
EnergyPulse, like no other publication,
also provides a means for our readers to
immediately interact with experts like you.
The demand for electric power is increasing worldwide as economies develop and economies begin to prosper. In unregulated markets the price of electricity increases along with rising demand. That higher cost encourages entrepreneurs to develop methods of generating electric power from technologies that would otherwise be considered uncompetitive. Over time improvements are made to these technologies that reduce the cost at which they produce power.
In its broadest sense, solar energy conversion has undergone and still is undergoing such development that began with waterwheels, windmills and water turbines. Wind energy and hydroelectric power are indirect forms of solar thermal energy. Solar chimneys, solar towers and the vortex engine are among the more recent proposals by which to generate electric power from solar thermal energy. A scale model solar chimney of 50-kW output has operated for several years in Spain, while a scale model of the vortex engine is being tested in Utah.
Solar energy is used to heat the tower or chimney as well as a skirt that is built around the base of the tower. Heated air rises inside the chimney and draws air through turbines that are located at its base. While the efficiency of solar towers is low, they can be built at competitive costs for their power output and rival the output of solar thermal steam power plants as well as photovoltaic technologies. It is a large-scale technology that uses air as its working fluid and that can greatly surpass the estimated power output at lower cost than other competing solar technologies that could occupy the same land area. Solar chimneys could be combined with certain types of photovoltaic power conversion.
There are several regions around the world where prevailing winds undergo very little change in direction with the change of season. In these regions solar towers can be combined with wind energy to increase power output. The skirt at the base of the solar towers collects solar heat and preheats air prior to it passing through turbines and going up the chimney. That skirt could be built in a semi-circular shape to capture wind and duct the wind toward the base of the tower.
A spiral-shaped skirt could capture a large cross section of wind energy and duct it toward the angled inlet vents at the base of the tower to produce a fast swirling air mass or vortex immediately inside the tower. An intake of a very large cross section can capture a large amount of wind energy that would accelerate to higher velocity in the decreasing cross section area of the spiral section. It would pass through the small cross sectional area of the turbines at high velocity, high efficiency and deliver higher power output that would be based on the cube of the wind velocity through the turbines.
The diameter of the base of a full-size solar tower can vary from 200 feet (60 meters) to 600 feet (200 meters). The solar chimney would generate a low-pressure zone immediately downstream of the turbines at the base of these engines. The tornado or cyclone that is ejected from the top of a vortex engine achieves a similar result in that it would draft the turbines to generate power. Directing wind energy into an intake of decreasing cross section would increase air speed through the drafted turbines and raise efficiency and increase power output.
A large vertical-axis turbine may be used to generate power if the solar skirt is of spiral design. On a mini scale, the spiral skirt would resemble the layout of the turbocharger of a truck engine in which the casing serves as a stator. It induces a swirl velocity to the exhaust gas prior to it flowing through the radial-flow turbine. A Russian engineer proposed a design of a giant sized vertical axis wind turbine that can ride on rails. That concept could be used inside the base of a solar tower equipped with a spiral intake. Each carriage could carry a turbine blade or airfoil as high as the mast of a yacht or tall sailing ship which is up to 200 feet (60 meters) in height. The spiral skirt would ensure that all vertical turbine blades would deliver power at all locations through 360 degrees of travel.
A spiral intake that leads to angled vents at the base of the solar tower could generate a swirling air mass inside the tower. The concept would achieve a similar result as the casing of the turbocharger in a railway locomotive engine that generates a vortex that flows into an axial-flow turbine. On a mega-scale the vortex inside the solar tower would flow into an axial-flow turbine mounted at about 330 feet (100 meters) above ground. Its weight would be supported by rails built inside the wall of the main tower as well as on the wall of a central inner tower of smaller diameter. The outer rails would carry both the vertical load as well as the tensile load or hoop stress that would result from the rotational velocity of each blade generating a centrifugal force against the rail. The rail wheels that carry the turbine may also drive electrical generation equipment.
Efficiency and Power
The peak isentropic efficiency of large vertical-axis (radial-flow) turbines and large axial-flow turbines could exceed 60% in moderate winds and rise to over 80% during strong winds. The cross section of the entrance to the spiral intake could be twice the cross section across the turbine blades. That decrease in cross-sectional area would cause the air speed to gently increase before passing through the turbines. The effect of doubling the air velocity in the spiral intake would increase turbine efficiency as well as raise power output eight-fold over a free-stream vertical axis turbine.
The solar-heated tower could serve as an exhaust chimney that would propel air from the turbines into the atmosphere. At some locations the heated tower may be used to produce a vortex or tornado so as to draft air through the turbine of up to 200 MW of output. That output was calculated by research groups such as the Solar Mission group of Australia, the Vortex Engine group of Canada and the Floating Solar Chimney group from Greece. The Vortex Engine group has even suggested that their design could generate up to 500 MW of output from a tower of 200 meters (656 feet) diameter. Research is underway to determine as to whether the vortex of the vortex engine would continue to operate during periods of high wind.
A tower of 600 feet diameter could have angled intakes that have a width of 1,000 feet at the base of the tower and a possible vertical height of 200 feet. It could draft air at 0.065 pounds per cubic feet through the turbines and exceed 140 MW output at 60% isentropic efficiency. That output could rise to over 330 MW at air speed of 40 feet per second through the turbines having 60% isentropic efficiency. An output of 1 GW could be possible after air speed exceeds 50 feet per second through turbines operating at 70% isentropic efficiency. That output would be the combined output of local solar heating of air and distant solar thermal energy that gave rise to the winds. Additional output would be possible after installing flexible solar panels from a company such as Daystar on the tower. Those panels would convert mainly UV light while heat from the infrared spectrum could heat the walls of the tower.
There are geographic locations where a solar tower of 200 meters (656 feet) height could propel a swirling vortex high into the atmosphere and generate a powerful vacuum effect immediately downstream of the turbine. That vacuum effect would enhance the efficiency and output of the turbine. An exhaust stator may be needed immediately downstream of an axial-flow turbine to sustain the exhaust vortex.
There are other locations where a high tower would be used instead of the vortex. The appropriate exhaust would be the 1,500 meter-high floating chimney design developed in Greece. It could be attached to a tower of up to 200 meters height and made of reinforced concrete. Such a tower would house an axial-flow turbine at a height if 100 meters. Solar towers that are built to a very large diameter and that use an axial-flow turbine and a smaller inner tower could use a circular array of several floating chimneys to draft the turbine.
The height of the concrete tower could be reduced to less than 100 meters if a large radial-flow vertical-axis turbine were used to generate power. The floating solar chimney could be attached to such a tower and extend to a height of 1,500 meters. It would be made from lightweight material and be kept aloft by a series of air cells that contain a light gas such as Helium. It may be possible to attach flexible photovoltaic technology from Daystar on the floating chimney design to generate additional output.
There are numerous locations around the world where wind direction undergoes very little change with the seasons. Powerful winds blow from the mid-Atlantic Ocean across the group of islands known as the Lesser Antilles as well as along the coastal regions of such countries as Surinam, Guyana and Venezuela. Some of these winds blow across the Central American countries of Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. Similarly powerful winds blow from the south Atlantic toward the Brazilian coast between 5 degrees south and the Tropic of Capricorn.
There are unidirectional winds that blow toward Chile south of Valparaiso as well as winds that blow north along the coastal regions of northern Chile and southern Peru. Similar northbound winds blow along the west coast of Africa between the Tropic of Capricorn and the equator as well as along the west coast of Australia near Perth. Mainly unidirectional winds also blow along Australia’s northeastern coast and southern coast, over Tasmania, across southern New Zealand and also across the southernmost tip of South Africa.
Unidirectional winds also blow from the northern Atlantic toward Ireland, Scotland, over a part of the southern UK as well as western France and northern Spain. Winds that blow south over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula undergo very little change with the seasons. At locations where rainfall is frequent and abundant, drainage systems need to be included in the wind-supercharged solar towers. At other locations the local topography could enhance the performance of such engines.
Effect of Mountains
There are numerous locations around the world where unidirectional winds blow into narrowing valleys throughout the year. It may be possible to take advantage of such features at some locations as the walls of such valleys could serve as the outer walls for part of the air intake. Cables could be secured to the walls of the valleys to stabilize the solar tower against buckling and even carry part of the weight of the tower. A floating chimney could be placed on top of the stabilized tower and reach up to 2,000 meters between the turbine and the exit. A cable stabilized tower could diverge into multiple exists on to which floating chimneys may be attached to increase the draft on the turbines.
Some valleys lead to dead ends from which incoming winds would accelerate upward at high velocity. Such updrafts could provide a drafting effect at the top of the tower and to the turbines at its base. The updraft may also be able to sustain at vortex at the tower exit. At other locations the tower could exhaust downstream into a widening valley over which a cover could be built so as to draft the turbines in the tower. There may be scope to use other topographical features to enhance the performance of the wind-supercharged solar tower systems. Suitable mountains and winds may be found at several locations around the world that would include:
Andes Mountains along the coast of Chile and Peru.
Coastal Mountains of California and Central Mountains of Baja California.
Central Mountains of Panama, Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala.
Coastal Mountains of northern Spain.
Southern Alps of New Zealand.
The power output and efficiency of such engines such as the solar chimney, solar tower and vortex engines can be improved using wind energy in regions winds are unidirectional year round. Performance could be further enhanced by using thermal energy provided by exhaust heat from thermal power stations, from geothermal energy or by concentrated solar heat. Solar reflectors may be placed at different elevations on mountain slopes to increase heating on the walls of shorter solar towers and chimneys. While the overall efficiency of wind-supercharged solar towers may remain comparatively low, they could still be competitive against many other renewable technologies in terms of output per unit cost.
For information on purchasing reprints of this article, contact sales. Copyright 2013 CyberTech, Inc.
Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) could make important contributions to the energy supplies in Africa and Asia because more than enough space and sunlight are available there. However, an economic drawback of such power plants is the low overall conversion efficiency from solar energy to electricity, which negatively effect on the levelized solar electricity cost. Continuous improvement of the concept has involved the investigation of methods to increase power station efficiency and capacity in parallel to reducing design dimensions for greater commercial feasibility. From this standpoint the author proposes a new approach to prospective SCPP . This approach includes the combining of the following grid connected technologies for proposed plants: Hybrid Geothermal / Solar Chimney Power Plant and Hybrid Geothermal / PV / Solar Chimney Power Plant. The novel proposed schemes of hybrid SCPP offer a number of potential advantages and represent an innovative way to reduce cost, optimizing the consumption of fossil fuel, and minimizing the environmental impact. They are based on thermal conversion, which allows hybrid operation with both solar heat and low temperature geothermal to continue generating electricity even when sunlight is not available. Attractive alternative is to use geothermal energy for electricity generation, because it is available around the clock and can be regulated according to the demand. Geothermal power generation could thus provide a major contribution to the basic supply of solar electricity. This is a major advantage since it enables operation according to the actual demand for electricity, without limitation to sunlight hours only and considerably improves SCPP ability to compete with conventional power plants. The hybrid Geothermal / Solar Chimney power Plant (GSCP) has generated much interest because it offers an innovative way to continuous 24 hours-operation, and improve the maneuver characteristic, of grid connected SCPP. The main target of GSCP design approach was to achieve high renewable share with little or no fossil fuel back up requirements in electrical power grid. Moreover, there is an increase in the useful operating time of the SCPP by reducing the daily start-up and shut-down times due to continuous operation of the power conversion system. Continuous improvement of the GSCP concept has involved the investigation of methods to increase the efficiency of the collector zone of a GSCP. Solar photoVoltaic (PV) power is already in widespread use and the costs of PV systems keep on reducing. Consequently, there is growing interest in grid-connected PV systems. However, the solar PV array convert 8 : 15 % of the absorbed solar radiation to electricity, the rest dissipates as heat . This motivates a solar PV/ Thermal ( PV/T ) cogeneration system, where heat is removed from the transparent PV array, used to heat the air underneath a collector roof. Further, the heat production per square meter of solar PV array can be as much as four times greater than the electrical energy produced so putting this heat to use improves the system total efficiency and cost effectiveness. Thereupon, the transparent solar PV/T arrays proposed for adaptation to the GSCP concept will introduce the ability to dramatically improve the performance of the collector zone and introduce a method of solar power generation (previously unavailable to the concept) creating greater base load electrical power generation. It is worthwhile to mention that the shear of thermal water can also be used as irrigation water once it has cooled down. Providing power, irrigation water, shadow and foreign exchange from the export of green power and revived agriculture, such multi-purpose plants could provide all what is needed to effectively combat desertification and create labor opportunities in the agriculture and food sector. Tourism and other industries could follow.
 Hussain Alrobaei, 2007, Hybrid Geothermal/Solar Energy Technology For Power Generation The Energy Central Network/ energycentral.com/centers/knowledge/whitepapers.
KENNY MAGERS 1.20.08
Yes the ideal of combining wind and solar is not new but the way we think about it is defferant . However if we mary wind and solar with a tornado vortex it can power a steam power plant with a added good side effect!( drinking water ) this has been proven in the past in defferant ways and in defferant structures and now can be put into one structure that can power all of the needs for the needs of many and also is not restricted to waterways for cooling , Instead it makes water from the internal heat and cooling chambers that make up it's internal self ennergzing power. It's called RENEWABLE THERMAL WIND POWER THE ENERGY POWER SOURCE. By Airken Enterpreneur Inventer.Kenny M More information can be gotten from email@example.com Informational dics.
Richard Vesel 1.22.08
Here is an opportunity to use what are currently considered to be "white elephants" of the nuclear industry...unused cooling towers.
I am about 25 miles from the Perry Nuclear Power Plant, on the shores of Lake Erie, and the plant was originally intended to be a two-unit BWR facility, but only one unit was ever completed and licensed. The second unit has a lot of infrastructure built, including the cooling tower.
I will have to assume that the largest part of the capital cost of a solar chimney would be the construction costs of the physical tower itself. This is a LARGE tower, over 500 feet tall, and at least 250' across at its base. How many more of these are sitting around the country? I believe that the WPPS has two unused towers. There are assuredly more. At these sites, they should be able to install prototype equipment and test the feasibility of the technology on a full-scale system, for a small fraction of the cost of building a greenfield facility.
What can be done to promote this kind of test activity?
Malcolm Rawlingson 1.22.08
The smartest thing to do would be to finish off the second BWR and utilise the cooling tower for its designated purpose. That way you will get 1000 MW or so of clean, reliable, emissions free and cheap energy available around the clock instead of a meagre amount of energy sometimes during the day when the wind and the sun feel like co-operating.
When the wind isn't blowing and the Sun isn't shining I feel there could be a small problem powering ones freezer overnight ---- but no doubt a few million lead acid or nickel hydride storage batteries should fix that....maybe throw in a few million fuel cells using incredibly rare metals like platinum as catalysts - just to be safe.
The most renewable and unlimted supply of energy is nuclear....and for those concerned about climate change (not me) there are no carbon dioxide emissions....and that....is a good thing as Martha would say.
Of course should climate changes unfold as Mr Gore and the faithful believe is about to happen rapidly then all these wind patterns that presently exist will likely change. We will be left with row upon row of towers that will not be doing much of anything useful...true white elephants to be sure.
Interesting idea - certainly - but practical not at all workable. Who is likely to want one of these in the back yard. We can't get planning permission to construct grid lines...I doubt very much that such permission will be forthcoming for many hundreds or even thousands of these. At one megawatt each (20 times the example given) one would need one thousand of these towers to replace one nuclear plant.
That is alot of towers.
KENNY MAGERS 1.22.08
For thoese of you that think the sun and wind has to be active for the renewable thermal wind plan to work really have no clue of how it works! It is a self energzining plant after the first start up from the inner workings heat sources at night it may slow down a little from 100-160 mile winds to 60-80 . Thermail basics learn them, It's important to have a on demand power source that combines 8 techs in one structure. Mr Richard Vesel please contact me for more information on the cooling towers in your area and send them to me firstname.lastname@example.org or contact for my plan spes for the cooling tower owners to look at for completion of this plan tower.
Brian Reinhart 1.23.08
History buffs love guys like you: individuals and organizations that play the role of the pessimist to new ideas and innovations that, by all likelihood, have a very small chance of becoming viable. However, it is a sure bet that the more cards you lay on the table, the better your chances of producing an ace (or at least a few kings and queens). Our current bread and butter, a.k.a. coal and nuclear, both leave something to be desired by many. Environmental concerns aside: coal isn’t free and won’t last forever and nuclear requires vast regulations and human resources (for good reason). With capital costs soaring into the billions for many large plants, neither of these options is easy to fund. The only way to improve upon our current energy situation is to explore new ways of power production. Chances are we will come away with several economically competitive or even economically superior options to what we currently have. When we do, critics will look a little foolish in the history books.
Kenneth Kok 1.23.08
Why not put some kind of air turbines on the inlets to the cooling towers at operating plants? Any electricity generated would be gravy and increase the overall efficiency of the system.
Just Curious, Ken
Richard Vesel 1.23.08
Malcolm - I am not sure you are reading the article with an objective eye. The "example cited" refers to generation capabilities from one tower which rival the output of a medium sized coal plant, hundreds of megawatts - please re-read. A lot of coal plants already have cooling towers of a similar size (I am working on an optimization system for a multi-GW site at this time - three large cooling towers, and two more at a nearby nuclear plant).
As far as building the second BWR, I have no problem with that, but I suspect that if they started (tick tick tick tick) NOW, it would come online about 2020. Meanwhile, proving the feasibility of the wind-driven power tower seems like a lot better use of the dormant tower than the long wait you suggest.
Very recent wind studies done on Lake Erie, in nearby Cleveland, have evaluated the wind potential for the area as 6 on a scale of 1-7, i.e. almost ideal for wind-generated electricity. The standard windmill would work well here - and I believe the power tower has an even better chance, given the natural circulation which is available from such a structure.
I invite you to "think outside the box" (trite as that may seem), in order to see what the true alternatives we have available to the 19th and 20th century technologies that we have gotten used to. Renewables afford us the hope of generation with little to no fuel cost, and rapidly declining capital costs, assuming people are willing to invest in the trial and error processes required for innovative solutions to be brought to commercial fruition.
Paul Stevens 1.23.08
The current and ongoing problems with most alternative energy systems are trying to turn a diffuse supply into a concentrated output. The advantage of coal and nuclear are that the raw materials come as concentrated energy. Nothing will change this.
Increasing efficiencies with which you manufacture 400 foot tall structures that are only capable of producing 3 Mw each doesn't do anything about the amount of steel, concrete and other materials that go into their manufacture, nor will it change Lake Eries wind profile to one where wind blows more than 30% of the time at a high enough velocity, nor will it let you site them any closer than 300 meters apart without interfering with the local wind patterns and further reduce their efficiency.
Malcolm isn't against alternatives. He is only waiting for someone to do math that doesn't use fantastic numbers and that makes sense.
There is a reason that most major utilities are considering building nuke stations as opposed to putting up 2000 turbine wind farms, in jurisdictions that don't have huge financial incentives for "alternatives" I mean. It isn't because of a vast conspiracy amongst uranium mining companies. It's because they can do the profit and loss calculations.
And please don't talk about guarnateeing potential insurance claims or loans as if they were the same as actual cash payouts.
Todd McKissick 1.23.08
Paul, I've done a number of RE analysis for Malcolm, both in these forums and via private email. I satisfied the majority of his skepticism and he even showed interest for his personal site. He then disappears until the next time he can shout 'all nuclear' to the masses. I think he just likes to be confrontational.
Regarding nuclear's negatives, for me, no one has been able to dispell my concerns over the following issues. Insitu mining which permanently contaminates that aquifer, the water use for cooling tower is often too concentrated for the site to supply, the mega transmission density needed for each plant, the increased reach of single point failures of the whole system, the manpower needed per plant extrapolated to hundreds of new plants, that new workforce beginning to pull from the less-than-highly skilled labor force, that new labor force decreasing the overall dilligence toward safety, and the big one being too much monopoly over too much of the market. If you can satisfy those issues, I would support more nuclear power.
Regarding the use of a diffuse supply, doesn't it count for anything that these distributed techniques can often take advantage of output-doubling dual-use, co-gen and CHP techniques onsite and that they directly reduce transmission needs? How about the fact that they get compared to existing wholesale prices when in reality they not only compete with the marginal prices but they compete with the post-taxed marginal prices?
Richard Vesel 1.24.08
I understand it is necessary to do the numbers - I deal with exactly those kinds of justifications, ad nauseum, all day long.
The way to prove out any system, is to first make the measurements necessary to gain some understanding of the quantity and quality of the input - in this case, the average velocity and profile of the air flow in "standard" cooling tower. Apply either reasonable or known conversion efficiencies, and see if you land in the right ballpark as an order of magnitude calculation.
Without a firsthand-developed set of these calculations, I was merely commenting on the values which Mr. Valentine cited in his article - 500MW from a "reasonable" size structure. If located in a place where the wind is generally favorable for wind-based power generation (6 on a scale of 1-7 for Cleveland), then it would seem that the next thing to try is to use an existing dormant structure to: A - Instrument the structure B - Obtain short and intermediate term velocity profile data for the internal space in that structure C - "Crank the numbers" to see what comes out - 100kw or 100MW ??? If you are a lot closer to 100MW than 100kw, then you are in the right ballpark. D - Refine the model E - Test a prototype, again in this case, in an existing dormant structure - a VERY low cost experiment, relatively speaking.
Also, please remember ... there are a LOT of fossil fired and nuclear heated power plants that have cooling towers, as a MINOR part of their overall plant cost.
These towers cost tens of millions to build, when the overall plants may cost $700M - $2B.
IF (notice the BIG "IF" used) a $100M plant structure can put out an average of 100MW, using this technology, it is already cost competitive with cheap coal. The figure of merit, which is the standard for current "cheap" energy, is $1/watt.
Additionally note that in this case, the "fuel" is free, I repeat: FREE - thereby supporting initially higher plant capital costs to achieve the same economic return on electric power generated.
Please do your own calculation!
Anumakonda Jagadeesh 11.10.09
The beauty of this technology is that it uses centuries-old tried-and-true principles of updraft. This is the same principles used for chimneys in open fire places. The reason your house doesn't fill up with smoke when you light a fire in your fireplace, is due to the suction created by the hot air rising up through the chimney. This pulls the smoke up through the chimney as well.
But in the case of the solar tower, we are not using a fire to create hot air. We are simply allowing the sun to do its thing: heat stuff up. In this case, the sun heats the air up, and the air rises through the solar chimney as a result. • This type of solar tower was first tested in Germany. • Later, another smaller scale test project solar chimney/tower was built in Spain. • The test project ran the solar chimney in Spain successfully for seven years, effectively proving that this was a workable solution. • There are many locations around the world where this technology can be used successfully. • Solar chimney power plants can be designed to store heat as well, so that they can continue to provide electricity at night - thus effectively allowing them to operate 24 hours a day.
• Australia is the first country to use this build this type solar energy power plant for commercial use. • The central tower will be over 3000 feet high and 400 feet in diameter. • It will use 750,000 cubic yards of concrete. • The solar energy collector (greenhouse) will contain thirty-million square yards of space. That over three and a half miles in diameter. • It will have 32 wind turbines placed at ground level, each capable of creating 6.25 megawatts of electricity. • It will take 34 months to construct. • It will provide a total of 200 megawatts, enough to provide solar energy in the form of electricity, for over 200,000 households. • The solar tower will create absolutely no carbon emissions, greenhouse gases, or other pollutants in its energy generation process. In other words, it is going to be 100% eco-friendly.